King Henry ENGLAND, III
- Born: 12 Oct 1206-1207, Winchester, Hampshire, England
- Married: 14 Jan 1236, Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England
- Died: 16 Nov 1272, Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
- Buried: 20 Nov 1272, Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
Other names for Henry were AQUITAINE Duke and ENGLAND King.
Ancestral File Number: 8XJ5-ZJ. User ID: 4727436/9454920.
Duke of AQUITAINE, King of ENGLAND Reigned 28 Oct 1216- 16 Nov 1272; Recrowned Whitsunday 1220.
A History of the Plantagenets, Vol I, The Conquering Family, Thomas B Costain, 1949, Doubleday & Co, p248:
"...After seven years of childless marriage, the beautiful Isabella presented the King with a son on October 12, 1207. The boy was namedHenry and he was to live a long life and earn for himself a front place among the worst of kings..."
A History of the English Speaking People Winston S Churchill Vol I The Birth of Britain Dodd Mead & Co p259:
"...The sole reason and justification for revolt died with John. Henry, a child of nine, was the undoubted heir to all the rights and loyalties of his grandfather's wide empire. He was the rightful King of England. Upon what grounds could the oppressions of the father bevisited upon his innocent son? A page of history had been violently turned; the new parchment was blank and clear. All parties were profoundly sensible of these considerations. Nevertheless, John for the moment was missed by those whose livesand fortunes were devoted to the national cause. William the Marshal acted with honesty and decision. Had he failed in his duty to the Crown the strong centralised monarchy which Henry II had created, and upon which the growing civilisation of the realm depended, might have degenerated into a heptarchy of feudal princes, or even worse. The Papal Legate, sure of the unchanging policy of Rome, aided William the Marshal. The boy King was crowned at Gloucester and began his reign of fifty-six years on October 28, 1216. He was anointed by the Legate, and in default of the diadem which John had lost in crossing the Wash a plain gold circlet was placed upon his brow. This was to prove no inadequate symbol of his rule."
"...William the Marshal, aged seventy, reluctantly undertook what we should now call the Regency. He joined to himself the Earl of Chester, who might well have been his rival but did not press his claims, and Hubert de Burgh, John's faithful servant...The religious character of the King's party had become predominant. The Royalists wore white crosses, the Church preached a virtual Crusade, and the chiefs of the opposing faction were excommunicated. `At a time,' said Henry in after-years to Bishop Grosseteste, `when we were orphan and minor, when our subjects were not only alienated from us, but were organised against us, it was our mother, the Roman Church, which brought this realm once more under our authority, which consecrated us King, crowned us and placed us on the throne.'"
p261: "The confusion and monotony of the barons' warfare, against each other, or against the King, sometimes with the Church, more often against the Church, have repelled many readers of history. But the fact is that King Henry III survived all his troubles and left England enjoying a prosperity and peace unknown when he was a child. The cruel war and anarchy lay only upon the surface; underneath, unformulated and largely unrealised by the hard-pressed actors, coursed all the tides which were to flow in Europe five hundred years later; and almost all the capital decisions which are demanded of the modern world were rife in this medieval society. From out of the conflict there rise the figures of heroes, both warriors and statesmen, from whose tribulations we are separated by long ages, but whose work and outlook unite them to us, as if we read their acts and words in the morning newspaper..."
p268:"The Poitevins were the first of the long succession of foreign favourites whom Henry III gathered round him in the middle years of his reign. Hatred of aliens, who dominated the King, monopolised the offices, and made scandalous profits out ofa country to whose national interests they were completely indifferent, became the theme of baronial opposition. The King's affection was reserved for those who flattered his vanity and ministered to his caprices. He developed a love for extravagant splendour, and naturally preferred to his morose barons the brilliant adventurers of Poitou and Provence. The culture of medieval Provence, the home of the troubadours and the and the creed of chivalry, fascinated Henry. In 1236 he married Eleanor, the daughter of Raymond of Provence. With Eleanor came her numerous and needy kinsmen, chief among them her four uncles. A new wave of foreigners descended upon the profitable wardships, marriages, escheats, and benefices, which the disgusted baronage regarded as their own. The King delighted to shower gifts upon his charming relations, and the responsibility for all the evils of his reign was laid upon their shoulders. It is the irony of history that not the least unpopular was this same Simon de Montfort, son of the repressor of the Albigenses."
p270: "...In 1247 the voracious Poitevins encouraged the King in despotic ideas of government. To their appetites were now added those of the King's three half-brothers, the Lusignans, the sons of John's Queen, Isabella, by her second marriage. Henry adopted a new tone. `Servants do not judge their master,' he said in 1248. `Vassals do not judge their prince or bind him by conditions. They should put themselves at his disposal and be submissive to his will.'...
p273: "...The later years of Henry III's troubled reign were momentous in their consequences for the growth of English institutions. This may perhaps be called the seed-time of our Parliamentary system, though few participants in the sowing could have foreseen the results that were eventually to be achieved. The commission for reform set about its work seriously, and in 1258 its proposals were embodied in the Provisions of Oxford, supplemented and extended in 1259 by the Provsions of Westminster. This baronial movement represented something deeper than dislike of alien counsellors. For the two sets of Provisions, taken together, represent a considerable shift of interest from the standpoint of Magna Carta. The Great Charter was mainly concerned to define various points of law, whereas the Provisions of Oxford deal with the overriding question of by whose advise and through what officials royal government should be carried on. Many of the clauses of the Porvisions of Westminster moreover mark a limitation of baronial rather than of royal jurisdiction..."
p275: "The King, the Court party, and the immense foreign interests assoc- iated therewith had no intention of submitting indefinitely to the thraldom of the Provisions. Every preparation was made to recover the lost ground. In 1259 the King returned with hopes of foreign aid from Paris, where he had been to sign a treatyof peace with the French. His son Edward was already the rising star of all who wished to see a strong monarchy. Supporters of this cause appeared among the poor and turbulent elements in London and the towns..."
The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes, Elizabeth Longford, 1991, Oxford Univ Press, pxix: "Normans and Plantagenets Genealogy: Henry III, mar Eleanor of Provence, reigned 1216-1272."
The Later Middle Ages 1272-1485, George Holmes, 1962, Norton Library of England
p258: "Appendix B Genealogical Table I The Plantagenets: Henry III Mar Eleanor of Provence..."
The Lives of the Kings and Queens of England, Antonia Fraser, 1975, Alfred Knopf, p70: "Henry III, 1207-72, mar Eleanor of Provence..."
The Wall Chart ofWorld History, Edward Hull, 1988, Studio Edition, England 1216: "King of England 1216-1272, Gold first coined in England 1257, First Regular Parliament 1265, Decreed in 1266 that an ounce should be 640 dry grains of wheat and 12 ounces should be a pound. Weak and timid..."
The Story of Civilization, Will Durant, Vol IV, The Age of Faith, Bk V, The Climax of Christianity, Ch XXV, The Recovery of Europe, Sec VIII, England
p673: "A papal legate crowned John's six-year-old son as Henry III (1216- 1272); a regency was formed with the earl of Pembroke at its head; encouraged by this elevation of one of their number, the nobles went over to Henry, and sent Louis back to France. Henry grew into an artist-king, a connoisseurof beauty, the inspiration and financier for the building of Westminster Abbey. He thought the Charter a disintegrating force, and tried to abrogate it, but failed. He taxed the nobles within an inch of revolution, always swearing that the latest levy would be the last. The popes needed money, too, and, with the King's consent, drew tithes from English parishes to support the wars of the papacy against Frederick II. The memory of these exactions prepared the revolts of Wycliffe and Henry VIII."
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1981, Micropaedia, Vol IV, p1024, Henry III: "Born 1 Oct 1207 Winchester Hampshire, Died 16 Nov 1272 London, King of England for 1216 to 1272. In the 24 years (1234-1258) during which he had effective control of the government, he diplayed such incompetence that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258).
"The elder son and heir of King John (ruled 1199-1216), Henry was nine years old when his father died. At that time London and much of eastern England were in the hands of rebel barons led by Prince Louis (later King Louis VIII of France), son of the French King Philip II Augustus. A council of regency presided over by the venerable William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, was formed to rule for Henry; by 1217 the rebels had been defeated and Louis forced to withdraw from England. After Pembroke's death in 1219 Hubert de Burgh ran the government until he was dismissed by Henry in 1232. Two ambitious Frenchmen, Peter des Roches and Peter of Rivaux, then dominated Henry's regime until the barons brought about their expulsion in 1234. That event marked the beginning of Henry's personal rule.
"Although Henry was charitable and cultured, he lacked the ability to rule effectively. In diplomatic and military affairs he proved to be arrogant yet cowardly, ambitious yet impractical. The breach between the King and his barons began as early as 1237, when the barons expressed outrage at the influence exercised over the government by Henry's Savoyard relatives. The marriage arranged (1238) by Henry between his sister, Eleanor, and his brilliant young French favourite, Simon de Montfort,Earl of Leicester, increased foreign influence and further aroused the nobility's hostility. In 1242 Henry's Lusignan half brothers involved him in a costly and disastrous military venture in France. The barons then began to demand a voice in selecting Henry's counsellors, but the King repeatedly rejected their proposal. Finally, in 1254 Henry made a serious blunder. He concluded an agreement with Pope Innocent IV (Pope 1234-1254), offering to finance papal wars in Sicily if the Popewould grant his infant son, Edmund, the Sicilian crown. Four years later Pope Alexander IV (Pope 1254-1261) threatened to excommunicate Henry for failing to meet this financial obligation. Henry appealed to the barons for funds, but they agreed to cooperate only if he would accept far-reaching reforms. These measures, the Provisions of Oxford, provided for the creation of a 15-member privy council, selected (indirectly) by the barons, to advise the King and oversee the entire administration. The barons, however, soon quarrelled among themselves, and Henry seized the opportunity to renounce the provisions (1261). In April 1264 Montfort who had emerged as Henry's major baronial opponent, raised a rebellion; the following month he defeated and captured the King and his eldest son, Edward, at the Battle of Lewes (14 May 1264), Sussex. Montfort ruled England in Henry's name until he was defeated and killed by Edward at the Battle of Evesham, Worcestershire, in August 1265. Henry, weak and senile, then allowed Edward to take charge of the government. After the King's death, Edward ascended the throne as King Edward I."
The Magnificent Century, Thomas B Costain, 1951, Popular Library, p20: "Henry, Born 1207, Died 1272, Became King of England under title of Henry III 1216, Married Eleanor of Provence 1236..."
p134: "...[Henry III] became deeply interested in the great developments which were being seen in architecture. The title of Henry theBuilder, which was given him later, was well deserved, for he became an intelligent leader in that field and left monuments behind him to attest his vision and taste...Henry's first venture in building, therefore, was the beautiful Lady Chapelat Westminster. He was dreaming and planning at this early stage also of rebuilding the abbey; a work which he accomplished later.
"It was in his mind that he would make Windsor Castle into a great King's residence, worthy of the nation and the throne. The First King's House, which Henry I had erected for his lovely Saxon bride, had been badly damaged in the sieges to which it had been subjected, although the Hall and St. Edward's Chapel still remained, in a somewhat battered condition. Henry's mind was already filled with a picture of what he would do: a three-sided wall to enclose the level ground west of the Norman keep which could allow for three baileys (courtyards devoted mostly to domestic activities), and inthe lower of these there would rise a much handsomer house than the one the first Henry had provided. He was planning royal chambers for himself and the Queen, a large and magnificent chapel to be dedicated to Edward the Confessor, his favoritesaint, and a Great Hall which would be the finest thing of its kind in the kingdom..."
The Political History of England 1216-1377, T F Tout, 1905, AMS Press, Vol III, p3: "...The chief obstacle in the way of the royalists had been the character of John, and the little Henry of Winchester could have had no share in the crimes of his father. But the dead king had lately shown such rare energy that there was a danger lest the accession of a boy of nine might not weaken the cause of monarchy...
"...The situation was saved by the wisdom and moderation of the papal legate, and the loyalty of William Marshal, who forgot his interests as Earl of Pembroke in his devotion to the house of Anjou. From the moment of John's death at Newark, the cardinal and the marshal took the lead. They met at Worcester, where the tyrant was buried, and at once made preparations for the coronation of Henry of Winchester. The ceremony took place at St Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, on October 28, from which day the new reign was reckoned as beginning. The marshal, who had forty-three years before dubbed the `young king' Henry a knight, then for a second time admitted a young king Henry to the order of chivalry. When the king had recited the coronation oath and performed homage to the pope, Gualo anointed him and placed on his head the plain gold circlet that perforce did duty for a crown. Next day Henry's leading supporters performed homage, and before November 1 themarshal was made justiciar..."
p17: "... William Marshal had recognised that the regency must end with him. `There is no land,' he declared, `where the people are so divided as they are in England. Were I to hand over the king to one noble, the others would be jealous. For this reason I have determined to entrust him to God and the pope. No one can blame me for this, for, if the land is not defended by the pope, I know no one who can protect it.' The fortunate absence ofRandolph of Chester on crusade made it easy to carry out this plan. Accordingly the king of twelve years was supposed to be capable of acting for himself..."
p35: "...Henry appointed Ralph Neville, the chancellor, and Stephen Segrave, a rising judge, as wardens of England, and on May 1, 1230, set sail from Portsmouth. It was the first time since 1213 that an English king had crossed the seas at the head of an army, and every effort was made to equip a sufficient force. Hubert the justiciar, Randolph of Chester, William the marshal, and most of the great barons personally shared in the expedition...
"...Before long the English marched through Brittany to Nantes, where they wasted six weeks. At last, on the adviceof Hubert, they journeyed south into Poitou. The innate Poitevin instability had again brought round the Lusignans, the house of Thouars, and their kind to the French side, and Henry found that his own mother did her best to obstruct his progress..."
p52: "... Thus the nominal government of Henry proved extremely ineffective. Hughe taxes were raised, but little good came from them. The magnates held sullenly aloof; the people grumbled; the Church lamented the evil days. Yet for five and twenty years the wretched system went on, not so much by reason of its own strength as because there was no one vigorous enough to overthrow it.
"The author of all this mischief was a man of some noble and many attractive qualities. Save when an occasional outburst of temper showed him a true son of John, Henry was the kindest, mildest, most amiable of men. He was the first king since William the Conqueror in whose private life the austerest critics could find nothing blameworthy. His piety stands high, even when estimated by the standards of the thirteenth century. He was well educated and had a touch of the artist's temperament, loving fair churches, beautiful sculpture, delicate goldsmith's work, andrichly illuminated books. He had a horror of violence, and never wept more bitter tears than when he learned how treacherously his name had been used to lure Richard Marshal to his doom. But he was extraordinarily deficient in stability of purpose. For the moment it was easy to influence him for good or evil, but even the ablest of his counsellors found it impossible to retain any hold over him for long. One day he lavished all his affection on Hubert de Burgh; the next he played into the hands of his enemies...Jealous, self-assertive, restless, and timid, he failed in just those qualities that his subjects expected to find in a king. Bornand brought up in England, andnever leaving it save for short and infrequent visitsto the continent, he was proud of his English ancestors and devoted to English saints, more especially to royal saints such as Edward the Confessor and Edmund of EAst Anglia. Yet he showed less sympathy with English ways than many of his foreigh-born predecessors. Educated under alien influences, delighting in the ar, the refinement, the devotion, and the absolutist principles of foreigners, he seldom trusted a man of English birth. Too weak to act for himself, too suspicious to trust his natural counsellors, he found the friendship and advice for which he yearned in foreign favourites and kinsmen. Thus it was that the hopes excited by the fall of the Poitevins were disappointed. The alien invasion, checked for a few years, was renewed in a more dangerous shape...
"Henry's marriage brought many Provencals and Savoyards to England..."
p54: "The first great influx of foreigners followed directly from Henry's marriage. For several years active negotiations had been going on to secure him a suitable bride. There had also at various times been talk of his selecting a wife from Brittany, Austria, Bohemia or Scotland, and in the spring of 1235 a serious negotiation for his marriage wit Joan, daughter and heiress of the Count of Pointhieu, only broke down throught the opposition of the French court. Henry then sought the hand of Eleanor, a girl of twelve years old, and the second of the four daughters of Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Provence, and his wife Beatrice, sister of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy. The marriage contract was signed in October. Before that time Eleanor had left Provence under the escort of her mother's brother, William, bishop-elect of Valence. On her way she spent a long period with her elder sister Margaret, who had been married to Louis IX of France in 1234. On January 14, 1236, she was married to Henry at Canterbury by Archbishop Edmund, and crowned at Westminster on the following Sunday." p62: "...At Christmas Hugh openly showed his hand. He renounced his homage to Alfonse, declared his adhesion to his step-son, Richard of Cornwall, the titular count of Poitou, and ostentatiously withdrew from the court with his wife. The rest of the winter was taken up with preparations for the forth- coming struggle.
"Untaught by experience, Henry III listened to the appeals of his mother and her husband. Richard of Cornwall, who came back from his crusade in January, 1242,was persuaded that he had another chance of realizing his vain title of Count of Poitou. But the king had neither men nor money and the parliament of February 2 refused to grant him sums adequate for his need, so that, despairing of dealing with his barons in a body, Henry followed the legate's example of winning men over individually. He made a strong protest against the King of France's breach of the existing truce, and his step-father assured him that Poitou and Gascony would provide him with sufficient soldiers if he brought over enough money to pay them. Thereupon, leaving the Archbishop of York as regent, henry took ship on May 9 at Portsmouth and landed on May 13 at Royan at the mouth of the Gironde. He was accompanied by Richard of Cornwall, seven earls, and 300 knights..."
p69: "[1248-1258] The relations between England and France remained anomalous Formal peace was impossible, since France would yield nothing, and the Englishking still claimed Normandy and Aquitaine. Yet neither Henry nor Louis had any wish for war. They had married sisters; they were personally friendly, and were both lovers of peace..."
p74: "... Soon after his son's return with his bride, Henry III quittedGascony, making his way home through France, where he visited his mother's tomb at Fontevraud and made atonement at Pontigny before the shrine of Archbishop Edmund. Of more importance was his visit to King Louis, recently returned from his Egyptian captivity. The cordial relations established by personal intercourse between the two kings prepared the way for peace two years later..."
p77: "...England still resounded with complaints of misgovernment, and demands for the execution of charters. Before going to Bordeaux in 1253, Henry obtained from the reluctant parliament a considerable subsidy, and pledged himself as `a man, a Christian, a knight, and a crowned and anointed king,' to uphold the charters...During his absence a parliament, summoned by the regents, Queen Elanor and Richard of Cornwall, for January, 1254, showed such unwilling- ness to grant a supply that a fresh assembly was convened in April, to which knights of the shire, for the first time since the reign of John, and repre- sentatives of the diocesan clergy, for the first occasion on record, were summoned, as well as the baronial and clerical grandees. Nothing came of the meeting save fresh complaints..."
p78: "...The foremost grievance against the king was still his co-operation with the papacy in spoiling the Church of England..."
p98: "During the early months of 1258, the aliens ruled the king and realm, added estate to estate, and defied all attempts to dislodge them...Henry III was in almost as bad a plight as his people. He had utterly failed to subdue Llewelyn. A papal agent threatened him with excommunication and the resumption of the grant of Sicily. He could not control his foreign kinsfolk, and the rivalry of Savoyards and Poitevins added a new element of turmoil to the distracted relations of the magnates. His son had been forced to pawn his best estates to William of Valence, and the royal exchequer was absolutely empty. Money must be had at all risks, and the only way to get it was to assemble the magnates..."
p105: "... The chief condition of the treaty of Paris was Henry's definitive renunciation of all his claims on Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Touraine, and Poitou, and his agreement to hold Gascony as a fief of the French crown. In return for this, Louis not only recognised him as Duke of Aquitaine, but added to his actual possessions..."
p109: "... The dissensions among the baronsencouraged Henry to shake off the tutelage of the fifteen. As soon as he was reconciled with his son, he charged Leicester with treason...but the earl answered to all points with such force that the king could do nothing against him. Unable tobreak down his enemy by direct attack, Henry followed one of the worst precedents of this father's reign by beseeching Alexander IV to relieve him of his oath to observe the Provisions. On April 13, 1261, a bull was issued annulling the wholeof the legislation of 1258 and 1259, and freeing the king from his sworn promise..."
p112: "...The king and his son at once crossed the channel to Amiens, where the French king was to hear both sides...Louis did not waste time, and on Janu- ary 23, 1264, issued his decision in a document called the `Mise of Amiens,' which pronounced the Provisions invalid, largely on the ground of the papal sentence Henry was declared free to select his own wardens of castles and ministers, andLouis expressly annulled `the statute that the realm of England should henceforth be governed by native-born Englishmen'..."
p119: "... On the day after the battle [of Lewes], Henry III accepted the terms imposed upon him by Montfortin a treaty called the `Mise of Lewes,' by which he promised to uphold the Great Charter, the Charter of the Forests, and the Provisions of Oxford. A body of arbitrators was constituted...and Henry took oath to follow the advice of his native-born council in all matters of state. An amnesty was secured to Leicester and Gloucester; and Edward and Henry of Almaine surrendered as hostages for the good behaviour of the marchers, who still remained under arms..."
p135: "...On November 16, 1272, Henry III, then in his sixty-sixth year, died at Westminster. His remains were laid at rest in the neighbouring abbey churhc, hard by the shrine of St. Edward. With him died the last of his generation. St. Louis' death in August, 1270, has already been recorded... Richard, King of the Romans, prostrated by the tragedy of Viterbo, preceded his brother to the tomb..."
p246: "... Nor were Earl Thomas [of Lancaster]'s personal connexions less magnificent than hisfeudal dignities. As a grandson of Henry III, he was the first cousin of the king. Through his mother, Blanche of Artois, Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne, he was the grandson of the valiant Robert of Artois, who had fallen at Mansura, and the great-grandson of Louis VIII of France. His half-sister, Joan of Champagne, was the wife of Philip the Fair, so that the French king was his brother-in-law as well as his cousin, and Isabella, Edward's consort, was his niece..."
Henry III. Plantaganet, King of England (1216-1272), was born on October
1, 1207, at Winchester, and died on November 16, 1272, at St.
Edmundsbury, and was buried at Westminster Abbey. He reigned from 1216
He was only nine years old when his father died, and he was crowned king
of England, on October 28, 1216.
William Marshal was persuaded by King John's executors to become rector
of the king and kingdom. The king's mother, Isabel of Angouleme, left
England and married again (1220), the Marshal died (1219), and Hubert de
Burgh ruled undisturbed until 1223. Then Henry, aged sixteen, became
fully responsible for the disposal of his seals, castle, lands, and
He was also Earl of Winchester.
In 1227 he declared himself of age; in 1232 he deprived Hubert de Burgh,
who ruled as regent and justiciary, of all his offices; and in 1234 he
took administration into his own hands.
On January 14, 1236, he married Eleanor of Provence, daughter of Raymond
Berengar (Berenger) IV., Count of Provence, 1222-1291, and his wife,
Beatrix of Savoy. Eleanor was also the
sister-in-law of St. Louis, King of France, and niece of Amadeus IV.,
Count of Savoy.
Henry III. reigned in the period from 1216 to 1272. He was memorable
because he showed himself unfitted to exercise supreme power
(1234-1258). By acting as if the Magna Charta had never been, he
provoked the opposition of the barons and made possible the rise of Simon
de Montfort. Dante represents him in Purgatory among those punished for
being negligent rulers. Unsuccessful in war, whether in Wales (1228) or
Gascony (1242-43), he was equally unsuccessful at home, and the defeat of
Simon de Montfort's baronial rebellion was due not to Henry but to his
son, Edward I.
After his death Queen Eleanor became a nun at Ambresbury in Wiltshire and
died there on June 24, 1291.
("The Genealogy of Homer Beers James", V1, JANDA Consultants, © 1993
World Ancestral Chart No. 31759 Ancestors of Warren Cash 1760.
World Ancestral Chart No. 17779 James Carl Romans: Born 1Oct 1206.
World Ancestral Chart No. 125360 Ancestors of Patricia Ann Kieffer.
Ancestral File Ver 4.10 8XJ5-ZJ Born Abt 1 Oct 1206, CF Born 12 Oct 1207.
Henry married Queen Eleanor Provence ENGLAND, daughter of Count Raimond Berenger PROVENCE, VI and Countess Beatrice De SAVOY, on 14 Jan 1236 in Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. (Queen Eleanor Provence ENGLAND was born about 1217-1223 in Aix, Charentemaritime, France, died on 25 Jun 1291 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England and was buried on 11 Sep 1291 in Monastery, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England.)