King Edward ENGLAND, I
- Born: 17 Jun 1239, Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
- Christened: 22 Jun 1239, Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
- Married (2): 5 Aug 1254, Monastery, Las Huelgas, Burgos, Spain
- Married (3): 8 Sep 1299, Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England
- Died: 7 Jul 1307, Burgh On The, Sands, Cambridge, England
- Buried: 28 Oct 1307, Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
Other names for Edward were "Longshanks", ENGLAND King, GASCONY Lord and WALES Prince.
Ancestral File Number: 8WKN-4B. User ID: 2363718/39486302.
"Longshanks", Prince of WALES, Lord of GASCONY, King of ENGLAND Reigned 20 Nov 1272-1277 Jul 1307.
A History of the English Speaking People, Winston S Churchill, Vol I, The Birth of Britain, Dodd Mead & Co
p284: "...Already in 1267 the Statute of Marlborough had reenacted the chief of the Provisions of Westminster. Not less important was his influence on his nephew Edward the new King, who was to draw deeply upon the ideas of the man he had slain. In this way de Montfort's purposes survived both the field of Evesham and the reaction which succeeded it, and in Edward I the great Earl found his true heir."
p285: "Few princes had received so thorough an education in the art of rulership as Edward I when at the age of thirty-three his father's death brought him to the crown. He was an experienced leader and a skillful general. He had carried his father on his shoulders; he had grappled with Simon de Montfort and while sharing many of his views had destroyed him. He had learned the art of warby tasting defeat...At any time in the closing years of King Henry III he could have taken control he had preferred a filial and constitutional patience, all the more remarkable when his own love of order and reform is contrasted w/ his father's indolence and incapacity and the general misgovernment of the realm.
"Of elegant build and lofty stature, a head and shoulders above the height of the ordinary man, with hair always abundant, which, changing from yellow in childhood to black in manhood and snow-white in age, marked the measured progress of his life, his proud brow and regular features were marred only by the drooping left eyelid which had been characteristic of his father. If he stammered he was also eloquent.There is much talk of his limbs. His sinewy, muscular arms were those of a swordsman; his long legs gave him a grip of the saddle, and the nickname of `Longshanks.' The Dominican chronicler Nicholas Trivet, by whom these traits are recorded, tells us that the King delighted in war and tournaments, and especially in hawking and hunting. When he chased the stag he did not leave his quarry to the hounds, nor even to the hunting spear; he galloped at breakneck speed to cut the unhappy beast to the ground.
"All this was typical of his reign. He presents us with qualities which are a mixture of the administrative capacity of Henry II and the personal prowess and magnanimity of Coeur de Lion. No English king more fully lived up to the maxim he chose for himself: `To each his own.' He was animated by a passionate regard for justice and law, as he interpreted them, and for the rights of all groups within the community. Injuries and hostility roused, even to his last breath, a passionate torrent of resistance. But submission, or a generous act, on many occasions earned a swift response and laid the foundation of future friendship.
"Edward was in Sicily when his father died, but the greatest magnatesin the realm, before the tomb had closed upon the corpse of Henry III, acclaimed him King, with the assent of all men. It was two years before he returned to England for his coronation. In his accession the hereditary and elective principles flowed into a common channel, none asking which was the stronger. His conflicts with Simon de Montfort and the baronage had taught him the need for the monarchy to stand on a national footing...Proportion is the keynote of his greatest years. Hesaw in the proud, turbulent baronage and a rapacious Church checks upon the royal authority; but he also recognised them as oppressors of the mass of his subjects; and it was by taking into account to a larger extent than had occurred before the interests of the middle class, and the needs of the people as a whole, that he succeeded in producing a broad, well-ordered foundation upon which an active monarchy could function in the general interest. Thus inspired, he sought a national kingship, an extension of his mastery throughout the British Isles, and a preponderant influence in the councils of Europe.
"His administrative reforms in England wre not such as to give satisfaction to any one of the strong contending forces, but rather to do justice to the whole. If the King resented the fetters which the Charter had imposed upon his grandfather, if he desired to control the growing opulence and claims of the Church, he did not himself assume the recaptured powers, but reposed them upon a broader foundation. When in his conflicts with the recent past he took away privileges which the Church and the baronage had gained he acted always in what was acknowledged to be the interest of the whole community.Throughout all his legislation, however varied its problems, there runs a common purpose: `We must find out what is ours and due to us, and others what is theirs and due to them.'
"Here was a time of setting in order. The reign is memorable, not for the erection of new landmarks, but because the beneficial tendencies of the three preceding reigns were extracted from error and confusion and organised and consolidated in a permanent structure. The framework and policies of the nation, which we have seen shaping themselves with many fluctuations, now set and hardened into a form which, surviving the tragedies of the Black Death, the Hundred Years War with France, and the Wars of the Roses, endured for the remainder of the Middle Age, and some of them for longer. In this period we see a knightly and bourgeois stage of society increasingly replacing pure feudalism. The organs of government, land tenure, the military and financial systems, the relations of Church and State, all reach definitions which last nearly till the Tudors..."
p288: "...After Edward's return to England in 1274, before a searching inquiry into the local administration was begun. Armed with a list of 40 questions, commissioners were sent throughout the land to ask what were the rights and possessions of the King, what encroachments had been made upon them, which officials were negligent or corrupt, which sheriffs `for prayer, price, or favour' concealed felonies, neglected their duties, were harsh or bribed. Similar inquests had been made before; none was so thorough or so fertile. `Masterful, but not tyrannical,' the King's policy was to respect all rights and overthrow all usurpations..."
p291: "Side by side with the large statutory achievements of the reign the King maintained a ceaseless process of administrative reform. His personal inspections were indefatigable. He travelled continually about his domain, holding at every centre strict inquiry into abuses of all kinds, and correcting the excesses of local magnates with a sharp pen and a strong hand. Legality, often pushed into pedantic interpretations, was a weapon upon which he was ever ready to lay his hands. In every direction by tireless perseverance he cleansed the domestic government of the realm, and ousted private interests from spheres which belonged not only to himself but to his people.
"Edward I was remarkable among medieval kings for the seriousness with which he regarded the work of administration and good government. It was natural therefore that he should place more reliance upon expert professional help...By the end of the thirteenth century three departments of specialised administration were already at work. One was the Exchequer, established at Westminster, where most of the revenue was received and the accounts kept. The second was the Chancery, a general secretariat responsible for the writing and drafting of innumerable royal charters, writs, and letters. The third was the Wardrobe, with its separate secretariat, the Privy Seal, attached to the ever-moving royal household, and combining financial and secretarial functions, which might range from financing a Continental wqar to buying a pennyworth of pepper for the royal cook..."
p294: "By 1294 the great King had changed much from his early buoyant manhood. After the long stormy years of sustaining his father he had reigned himself fornearly a quarter of a century. Meanwhile his world had changed about him; he had lost his beloved wife Eleanor of Castile, his mother, Eleanor of Provence and his two eldest sons...Wales and Scotland presented grave problems; opposition was beginning to make itself heard and felt. Alone, perplexed and ageing, the King had to face an endless succession of difficulties..."
p296: "...[The VII Earl of Hereford and Earl of Norfolk] demanded the confirmation of those two instruments,Magna Carta and its extension, the Charter of the Forest, which were the final version of the terms extorted from John, together with six additional articles...The articles were confirmed, and in November at Ghent the King ratified them reserving however certain financial rights of the Crown.
"These were large and surprising concessions. Both King and opposition attached great importance to them, and the King was suspected, perhaps with justice, of trying to withdraw from the promises he had given. Several times the baronial party publicly drew attention to these promises before Parliament, and finally in February 1301 the King was driven by the threats and arguments of a Parliament at Lincoln to grant a new confirmation of both charters and cerain further articles in solemn form.
"By this crisis and its manner of resolution, two principles had been established from which important consequences flowed. One was that the King had no right to despatch the feudal host wherever he might choose. This limitation sounded the death-knell of the feudal levy, and inexorably led in the following century to the rise of indentured armies serving for pay. The second point of principle now recognised was that the King could not plead `urgent necessity' as a reason for imposing taxation without consent. Other English monarchs as late as the seventeenth century were to make the attempt. But by Edward's failure a precedent had been set up, and a long stride had been taken towards the dependence of the Crown upon Parliamentary grants."
p308: "... he returned to Scotland. Edward was now too ill to march or ride. Like Emperor Severus a thousand years before, he was carried in a litter against this stern people, and like him he died upon the road. His last thoughts were on Scotland and on the Holy Land. He conjured his son to carry his bones in the van of the army which should finally bring Scotland to obedience, and tosend his heart to Palestine with a band of a hundred knights to help recover the Sacred City. Neither wish was fulfilled by his futile and unworthy heir.
"Edward I was the last great figure in the formative period of English law. His statutes, which settled questions of public order, assigned limits to the powers of the seigneurial courts and restrained the sprawling and luxurious growth of judge-made law, laid down principles that remained fundamental to the law of property until the mid-nineteenth century. By these great enactments necessary bounds were fixed to the freedom of the Common Law which, without conflicting with its basic principles or breaking with the past, imparted to it its final form.
"In the constitutional sphere the work of Edward I was not less durable. He had made Parliament- that is to say, certain magnates and representatives of the shires and boroughs- the associate of the Crown, in place of the old Court of Tenants-in-Chief.By the end of his reign this conception had been established. At first it lacked substance; only gradually did it take on flesh and blood. But between the beginning and the end of Edward's reign the decisive impulse was given. At the beginninganything or nothing might have come out of the experiments of his father's troubled time. By the end it was fairly settled in the customs and traditions of England that `sovereignty,' to use a term which Edward would hardly have understood, would hence forward reside not in the Crown only, nor in the Crown and Council of Barons, but in the Crown in Parliament...
"...the foundations of a strong national monarchy for a United Kingdom and of a Parliamentary Constitution had been laid...Long years of civil war, and despotism in reaction from anarchy, marred and delayed the development of itsinstitutions. But when the traveller gazes upon the plain marble tomb at Westminster on which is inscribed, `Here lies Edward, the Hammer of the Scots. Keep troth,' he stands before the resting-place of a master-builder of British life, character, and fame."
The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes, Elizabeth Longford, 1991, Oxford Univ Press
pxix: "Normans and PlantagenetsGenealogy: Edward I Longshanks, mar (1) Eleanor of Castile, reigned 1272-1307."
The Political History of England 1216-1377, Vol III, T F Tout, 1905, AMS Press
p71: "...Edward was ten years of age, and he was thinking of providing him withan appanage, sufficient to support a separate household and so placed as to train the young prince in the duties of statecraft. Before November, 1249, he granted to Edward all Gascony, along with the profits of the government of Ireland, whichwere set aside to put Gascony in a good state of defence. Simon's strong had was now more than ever necessary to keep the boy's unruly subjects under control. The King therefore continued Simon as seneschal of Gascony, though henceforth the earl acted as Edward's minister..."
p73: "...in October he and Eleanor were married at the Cistercian monastery of Las Huelgas. His appanage included all Ireland, the earldom of Chester, the king's lands in Wales, the Channel Islands, the whole of Gascony, & whatsoever rights his father still had over the lands taken from him and King John by the Kings of France. Thus he became the ruler of all the outlying dependencies of the English crown, and the representative of all the claims on the Aquitanian inheritance of Eleanor and the Norman inheritance of William the Conqueror..."
p74: "...Edward remained in Gascony about a year after his father...his rule in Gascony has its importance as the first experiment in government by the boy of fifteen who was later to become so great a king. Returning to London in November, 1255, he still forwarded the interests of his Gascon subjects..."
p102: "...By the middle of July  the Lusignans had crossed over to France. With them disappeared the whole of the organized opposition to the new government. Edward, deprived of their support, swore to observe the Provisions..."
p107: "...[Montfort]'s influence began to modify the policy of Edward, the king's son, who, since the flight of his Poitevin kinsmen, was gradually arriving at broader views of national policy. Even before his father's journey to France, Edward took up a line of his own. In the October parliament of 1259, he listened to a petition presented to the council by the younger nobles who complained that, though the king had performed all his promises, the barons had not fulfilled any of theirs. Edward thereupon stirred up the oligarchy to issue an instalment of thepromised reforms in the document known as the Provisions of Westminster. During Henry's absence in France the situation became strained. The oligarchic party, headed by Gloucester, was breaking away from Montfort; and Edward was forming a liberal royalist party which was not far removed from Montfort's principles. Profiting from these discords, the Lusignans prepared to invade England...
"Early in 1260, Montfort went back to England and made common cause with Edward. Despite the king's order that no parliament should be held during his absence abroad, Montfort insisted that the Easter parliament should meet as usual in London..."
p112: "...The king and his son at once crossed the channel to Amiens, where the French king was to hear both sides...Louis did not waste time, & on January 23, 1264, issued his decision in a document called the `Mise of Amiens,' which pronounced the Provisions invalid largely on the ground of the papal sentence."
p134: "...Nowhere save France did the Holy War win more powerful recruits than in England. In 1268 Edward himself took the cross, and with him his brother Edmund of Lancaster, his cousin Henry of Almaine, and many leading lords of both factions. Financial difficulties delayed the departure of the crusaders, and it was not until 1270 that Edward and Henry were able to start. On reaching Provence, they learnt that Louis had turned his arms against Tunis, whither they followed him with all speed. On Edward's arrival off Tunis, he found that Louis was dead and that Philip III, the new French king, had concluded a truce with the misbelievers. Profoundly mortified by this treason to Christendom, Edward set forth with his little squadron to Acre, the chief town of Palestine that still remained in Christian hands...Edward remained in Palestine until August, 1272, and threw all his wonted fire and courage into the hopeless task of upholding the fast decaying Latin kingdom. At last alarming news of his father's health brought him back to Europe..."
p136: "The Dominican chronicler, Nicholas Trivet, thus describes the personality of Edward I: ` He was of elegant build and lofty stature, exceeding the height of theordinary man by a head and shoulders. His abundant hair was yellow in childhood, black in manhood, and snowy white in age. His brow was broad, and his features regular, save that his left eyelid drooped somewhat, like that of his father, and his part of the pupil. He spoke with a stammer, which did not, however, detract from the persuasiveness of his eloquence. His sinewy, muscular arms were those of the consummate swordsman, and his long legs gave him a firm hold in the saddle whenriding the most spirited of steeds. His chief delight was in war and tournaments, but he derived treat pleasure from hawking and hunting, and had a special joy in chasing down stags on a fleet horse and slaying them with a sword instead of a hunting spear. His disposition was magnanimous, but he was intolerant of injuries, and reckless of dangers when seeking revenge, though easily won over by a humble submission.' The defects of his youth are well brought out by the radical friar who wrote the `Song of Lewes'. Even to the partisan of Earl Simon, Edward was `a valiant lion, quick to attack the strongest, and fearing the onslaught of none. But if a lion in pride and fierceness, he was a panther in inconstancy and mutability, changing his word and promise, cloaking himself by pleasant speech. When he is in a strait he promises whatever you wish, but as soon as he has escaped he forgets his promise. The treachery or falsehood, whereby he is advanced, he calls prudence; the way whereby he arrives whither he will, crooked though it be, he regards as straight; whatever he likes he says is lawful, and he thinks he is released from the law, as though he were greater than a king.'
"Hot and impulsive in disposition, easily persuaded that his won cause was right, and with a full share in the pride of caste, Edward committed many deeds of violence in his youth, and never got over his deeply rooted habit of keeping the letter of his promise while violating its spirit. Yet he learnt to curb his impetuous temper, and few medieval kings had a higher idea of justice or a more strict regard to his plighted word. `Keep troth' was inscribed upon his tomb, and his reign signally falsified the prediction of evil which the Lewes song- writer ventured to utter. A true sympathy bound him closely to his nobles and people. His unstained family life, his piety and religious eal, his devotion to friends and kinsfolk, his interest in the bestmovements of his time, showed him a true son of Henry III. But his strength of will and seriousness of purpose stand in strong contrast to his father's weakness and levity. A hard- working, clear-headed, practical, and sober temperament made him the most capable king of all his line. He may have been wanting in originality or deep insight, yet it is impossible to dispute the verdict that has declared him to be the greatest of all the Plantagenets.
"The broad lines of Edward's policy during the thirty-five years of his kingship had already been laid down for him during his rude schooling. The ineffectiveness of his father's government inspired him with a love of strong rule, and this enabled him to grapple with the chronic maladministration which made even a well-ordered medieval kingdom a hot-bed of disorder. The age of Earl Simon had been fertile in new ideals and principles of government. Edward held to the best of the traditions of his youth, and his task was not one of creation so much as of selection. His age was an age of definition. The series of great laws, which he made during the earlier half of his reign, represented a long effort to appropriate what was best in the age that had gone before, and to combine it in orderly sequence. The same ideals mark the constitutional policy of his later years. The materials for the future constitution of England were already at his hand. It was a task well within Edward's capacity to strengthen the authority of the crown by associating the loyal nobles and clergy in the work of ruling the state, and to build up a body politic in which every class of the nation should have its part. Yet he never willingly surrendered the most insignificant of his prereogatives, and if he took the people into partnership with him, he did so with the firm belief that he would be a more powerful king if his subjects loved and trusted him. Though closely associated with his nobles by manyties of kinship and affection, he was the uncompromising foe of feudal separatism, and hotly resented even the constitutional control which the barons regarded as their right. In the same way the unlimited franchises of the lords of the Welsh march, the almost regal authority which the treaty of Shrewsbury gave to the Prince of Wales, the rejection of his claims as feudal overlord of Scotland, were abhorrent to his autocratic disposition. True son of the Church though he was, he wasthe bitter foe of ecclesiastical claims which, constantly encroaching beyond their own sphere, denied kings the fulness of their authority.
"Edward's policy was thoroughly comprehensive. He is not only the `English Justinian' and the creator of our later consitution; he has rightly been praised for his clear conception of the ideal of a united Britain which brought him into collision with Welsh and Scots. His foreign policy lay as near to his heart as the conquest of Wales or Scotland, or the subjection of priests and nobles. He was eager to make Gascony obey him, anxious to keep in check the French king, and to establish a sort of European balance of power, of which England, as in Wolsey's later dreams, was to be thetongue of the balance. Yet, despite his severe schooling in self-control, he undertook more than he could accomplish, and his failure was the more signal because he found the utmost difficulty in discovering trustworthy subordinates. Moreover,the limited resources of a medieval state, and the even more limited control which a medieval ruler had over these resources, were fatal obstacles in the way of too ambitious a policy. Edward had inherited his father's load of debt, and couldonly accomplish great things by further pledging his credit to foreign financiers, against whom his subjects raised unending complaints. Yet, if his methods of attaining his objects were sometimes mean and often violent, there was a rare nobility about his general purpose..."
p140: "... The tournament between the best knights of England and Burgundy was fought out with such desperation that it became a serious battle. At last Edward unhorsed the count [of Chalon] in a personal encounter, which added greatly to his fame. This `Little Battle of Chalon' was the last victory of his irresponsible youth.
"The serious business of kingcraft began when Edward met his cousin, Philip III at Paris...Already a sticklerfor legal rights, even when used to his own detriment, Edward was unable to deny his subjection to the overlord of Aquitaine. He therefore performed homage, but phrased his submission in terms which left him free to urge his claims at a more convenient season. `Lord king,' he said to Philip, `I do you homage for all the lands which I ought to hold of you...'"
p147: "...In domestic policy, seven years of monotonous administration had in a way prepared for vigorous reforms. Edwardreturned to England in 1274...The first general parliament of the reign to which the king summoned the commons was held at Westminster in the spring of 1275. Its work was the statute of Westminster the First, a comprehensive measure of many articles which covered almost the whole field of legislation, and is especially noteworthy for the care which its compilers took to uphold sound administration and put down abuses..."
p154: "... While in the statute of Westminster Edward prepared for the future, the companion statute of Winchester, the work of the autumn parliament, revived the jurisdiction of the local courts; reformed the ancient system of watch and ward, and brought the ancient system of popular courts into harmony with the jurisdiction emanating from the crown, which had gone so far towards superseding it. This measure marks the culmination of Edward's activity as a lawgiver. During the next five years there were no more important statutes." p169: "Edward I had now attained the height of his fame. He had conquered Llewelyn; he had reformed the administration; he had put himself as a lawmaker in the same rank as St. Louis or Frederick II; and he had restored England to a leadingposition in the councils of Europe. Moreover, he had won a character for justice and fairness which did him even greater service, since the several deaths of prominent sovereigns during 1285 left him almost alone of his generation among princes of a lesser stature..."
p170: "...Other matters also called Edward's attention to the continent. He had to do homage to the new French king...had to press for the execution of the treaty of Amiens, and his presence was again necessary inGascony. His realm was in such profound peace that he could safely leave it. Accordingly in May, 1286, he took ship for France. With him went his wife Eleanor of Castile, his chancellor Bishop Burnell, and a large number of his nobles. He entrusted the regency to his cousin, Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, the son and successor of Earl Richard; and England saw him no more until August 1289..."
p184: "... The expulsion of the Jews, the reform of the administration, the statute `Quia emptores,' the treaty of Tarascon, the humiliation of Gloucester, and the successful issue of the Scottish arbitration, mark the culminating point in the reign of Edward I. The king had ruled twenty years with almost uniform success, and his only serious disappointment had been the failure of the crusade. The last hope of the Latin East faded when, in 1291, Acre, so long the bulwark of the crusaders against the Turks, opened its gates to the infidel. With the fall of Acre went the last chance of the holy war... These troubles bore the more severely on the king because this period saw also the removal of nearly all of those in whom he had placed special trust. The gracious Eleanor of Castile died in 1290, at Harby, inNottinghamshire, near Lincoln...A few months later Edward's mother, Eleanor [of Provence], ended her long life inthe convent of Amesbury, in Wiltshire..."
p185: "... The ageing king became more and more lonely, as he was compelled torely upon a younger and less faithful generation..."
p187: "... Meanwhile, Edward and Philip were to arrange a meeting at Amiens to settle the conditions of a permanent peace, by which Edward was to take Philip's sister, Margaret, as his second wife, and the Gascon duchy was to be settled upon the offspring of the union. That Edward or Edmund should ever have contemplated such terms is a strong proof of their zeal for peace. It soon became clear that Edmund had been outrageously duped, and that the whole negotiation was a trick to secure for Philip the permanent possession of Gascony..."
p211: "...Both kings despatched their envoys to Rome, where with marvellous celerity Boniface issued, on June 30, 1298,a preliminary award. It suggested the possibility of a settlement on the basis of each belligerent retaining the possessions which he had held at the beginning of the struggle, and entering into an alliance strengthened by a double marriage. Edward was to marry the French king's sister Margaret, while Edward of Carnarvon was to be betrothed to Philip's infant daughter Isabella. The latter match involved the repudiation of the betrothal of Edward of Carnarvon with the daughter of theCount of Flanders. But all through the award there was no mention of the allies of either party..."
p216: "... A papal legate presided over a congress of English and French ambassadors at Montreuil-sur-mer, which belonged to Edward by right of the late queen, Eleanor as Countess of Ponthieu. The outcome of these deliberations was the treaty of Montreuil. The treaty of Montreuil was simply a marriage treaty. Edward was forthwith to marry Margaret, and his son was to be berothed to Isabella of France...As soon as the ratifications were exchanged the king, who was then sixty years of age, and his youthful bride were married on September 9 at Canterbury by Archbishop Winchelsea..."
p230: "...Edward's last parliament met in January, 1307, at Carlisle..."
p232: "...Once more there was some talk of Edward leading a crusade & the French lawyer, Peter Dubois, at this time dedicated to him the first draft of his remarkable treatise on the recovery ofthe Holy Land. Nor did the project seem altogether impracticable. Though Edward was sixty-seven years of age, he remained slim, vigorous, and straight as a palm tree. He could mount his horse and ride to the hunt or the field with activity ofyouth. His eyes were not dimmed with age and his teeth were still firm in his jaws..."
p435: "...William of Wykeham who had been the guardian of the Earl of March during his long minority was the most experienced and wary of the clerical opposition to the lawyers and courtiers of the Lancaster faction. He had an eager and enthusiastic backer in the young and high born Bishop of London, William Courtenay, the son of the Earl of Devon, and through his mother, Margaret Bohun, a great-grandson of Edward I. Office and descent combined to make Bishop Courtenay the custodian of the constitutional tradition, which was equally strong among the great baronial houses of ancient descent and such highly placed ecclesiastics as were zealous for the nation as well as for their order..."
The Later Middle Ages 1272-1485, George Holmes, 1962, Norton Libary of England
p258: "Appendix B Genealogical Table I The Plantagenets: Edward I (1272- 1307) Mar (1) Eleanor of Castile and (2) Margaret of France..."
The Lives of the Kings and Queens of England, Antonia Fraser 1975, Alfred Knopf
p70: "Edward I 1239-1307, mar (1) Eleanor of Castile, mar (2) Margaret of France..."
The Wall Chart of World History, Edward Hull, 1988, Studio Edition, England 1272: "King of England 1272-1307, `Longshanks', Conquered Wales 1282, David Prince of Wales `Drawn & Quartered'..."
The Story of Civilization, Will Durant, Vol IV, The Age of Faith, Bk V, The Climax of Christianity, Ch XXV, The Recovery of Europe, Sec VIII, England,
p678: "Edward I (1272-1307) was less a scholar than his father, and more a king; ambitious, strong of will, tenacious in war, subtle in policy, rich in stratagems and spoils, yet capable of moderation and caution, and of farseeing purposes that made his reign one of the most successful in English history. He reorganized the army, trained a large force of archers in the use of the longbow, and established a national militia by ordering every able-bodied Englishman to possess, and learn the use of arms; unwittingly, he created a military basis for democracy. So strengthened, he conquered Wales, won and lost Scotland, refused to pay the tribute that John had promised the popes, and abolished the papal suzerainty over England. But the greatest event of his reign was the development of Parliament. Perhaps without willing it, Edward became the central figure in England's finest achievement-the reconciliation, in government and character, of liberty and law."
p609: "...A year [after Louis IX's death] Prince Edward of England landed at Acre, bravely led some futile sallies, and hurried back to accept the English crown."
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1981, Micropaedia, Vol III, p796, Edward I of England: "Born 17 Jun 1239 Westminster, Died 7 Jul 1307 Burgh by Sands near Carlisle Cumberland, son of Henry III and King of England 1272-1307, a period of rising national consciousness, is noted for the administrative efficiency of his reign and his strengthening of the crown against the feudal nobility.
"Edward was given the duchy of Gascony, the French Oleron, the Channel Islands, Ireland, lands in Wales, and the Earldom of Chester (1254), enjoying the revenues, but only nominally governing. In 1272 he became king of England upon the death of Henry III, and from 1275 to 1290 used the parliaments and other councils to enact measures of consolidation and reform in legal, procedural, and administrative matters. Invading Wales in 1277, he destroyed the autonomy of that principality by the Statute of Wales (1284). Unabel to resist intervention in Gascony by Philip IV of France, he made peace with the French in 1299. Edward was involved in difficulties over control of Scotland from 1292, when the Scottish line of succession ended, through 1307, when he died on his way to subdue the current rebellion in that country."
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1981, Macropaedia, Vol VI, p434, Edward I of England: "King of England from 1272 to 1307, Edward I presided over a period of rising national consciousness within the country. During his reign, the English Parliament began to develop its distinctive character, and the monarchy extended its effective control over Wales. His attempt to extend English suzerainty over Scotland initiated two and a half centuries of sanguinary warfare between the two countries. His reign is particularly noted for administrative efficiency and legal reform. He introduced a series of statutes that did much to strengthen the crown in the feudal hierarchy. His definition and emendation of English common law has earned him the name of the
"Edward was born at Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. In 1254 he was given the duchy of Gascony, the French Oleron, the Channel Islands, Ireland, Henry's lands in Wales, and the Earldom of Chester, as well as several castlesl Henry negotiated Edward's marriage with Eleanor, half sister of Alfonso X of Leon and Castile. He married Eleanor at Las Huelgas in Spain (October 1254) and then travelled to Bordeaux to organize his scattered appanage. He now had his own household and officials, chancery and seal, with an exchequer (treasury) at Bristol Castle; though nominally governing all his lands, in Gascony and Ireland he merely enjoyed the revenues. He returned to England in November 1255 and attacked Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, Prince of Gwynedd, to whom his Welsh subjects had appealed for support when Edward attempted to intorduce English administrative units in his Welsh lands. Edward, receiving no help from either Henry or the marcher lords, was defeated ignominiously. His arrogant lawlessness and his close association with his greed Poitevin uncles, who had accompanied his mother from France, increased Edward's unpopularity among the English. But after the Poitevins were expelled, Edward fell under the influence of Simon de Montfort, his uncle by marriage, with whom he made a formal pact. Montfort was the leader of a baronial clique that was attempting to curb the misgovernment of Henry.
"Edward reluctantly accepted the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which gave effective government to the barons at the expense of the king. On the other hand, he intervened dramatically to support the radical Provisions of Westminster (October 1259), which ordered the barons to accept reforms demanded by their tenants. In the dangerous crisis early in 1260 he supported Montfort and the extremists, though finally he deserted Montfort and was forgiven by Henry (May 1260). He was sent to Gascony in October 1260 but returned early in 1263. Civil war had now broken out between Henry and the barons, who were supported by London. Edward's violent behaviour and his quarrel with the Londoners harmed Henry's cause. At the Battle of Lewes (May 14, 1264) his vengeful pursuit of the Londoners contributed to Henry's defeat. Edward surrendered and became a hostage in Montfort's hands. He escaped at Hereford in May 1265 and took charge of the royalist forces, penned Montfort behind the River Severn, and, by lightning strategy, destroyed a large relieving army at Kenilworth (August 1). On August 4 he trapped and slew Montfort at Evesham and rescued Henry. Shattered and enfeebled, Henry allowed Edward effective control of government, and his extreme policy of vengeance, especially against the Londoners, revived and prolonged rebel resistance. Finally, the papal legate Ottobuono, Edward's Uncle Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and other moderates persuaded Henry to the milder policy of the Dictum of Kenilworth (31 Oct 1266), and after some delay the rebels surrendered. Edward took the cross (1268), intending to join the French King Louis IX on a crusade to the Holy Land, but was delayed by lack of money until August 1270. Louis died before Edward's arrival; and Edward, after wintering in Sicily, went to Acre, where he stayed from May 1271 to September 1272, winning fame by his energy and courage and narrowly escaping death by assassination but achieving no useful results. On his way home he learned in Sicily of Henry III's death on November 16, 1272.
"Edward had nominated Walter Giffard, archbishop of York, Philip Basset, Roger Mortimer, and his trusted clerk Robert Burnell to safeguard his interests during his absence. After Henry's funeral, the English barons all swore fealty to Edward (November 20, 1272). His succession by hereditary right and the will of his magnates was proclaimed, and England welcomed the new reign peacefully, Burnell taking charge of the administration with his colleague's support. The quiet succession demonstrated England's unity only five years after a bitter civil war. Edward could journey homeward slowly, halting in Paris to do homage to his cousin Philip III for his French lands (July 26, 1273), staying several months in Gascony and reaching Dover on August 2, 1274, for his coronation at Westminster on August 19. Now 35 years old, Edward had redeemed a bad start. He had been arrogant, lawless, violent, treacherous, revengeful, and cruel; his Angevin rages matched those of Henry II. Loving his own way and intolerant of opposition, he had still porved susceptible to influence by strong-minded associates. He had shown intense family affection, loyalty to friends, courage, brilliant military capacity, and a gift for lieadership; handsome, tall, powerful, and tough, he had the qualities men admired. He loved efficient, strong government, enjoyed power, and had learned to admire justice, though in his own affairs it was often the letter, not the spirit of the law that he observed. Having mastered his anger, he had shown himself capable of patient negotiation, generosity, and even idealism; and he preferred the society and advice of strong counsellprs with good minds. As long as Burnell and Queen Eleanor lived, the better side of Edward triumphed, and the years until about 1294 were years of great achievement. Thereafter, his character deteriorated for lack of domestic comfort and independent advice. He allowed his autocratic temper full rein and devoted his failing energies to prosecution of the wars in France and against Scotland.
"Shrewdly realistic, Edward understood the value of the
parliaments', which since 1254 had sidtinguished English government and which Montfort had deliberately employed to publicize government policy and to enlist widespread, active support by summoning representatives of shires and boroughs to the council to decide important matters. Edward developed this practice swiftly, not to share royal power with his subjects but to strengthen royal authority with the support of rising national consciousness. From 1275 to 1307 he summoned knights and burgesses to his parliaments in varying manners. The Parilament of 1295, which included representatives of shires, boroughs, and the lesser clergy, is usually styled the Model Parilament, but the pattern varied from assembly to assembly, as Edward decided. By 1307, Parliament, thus broadly constituted, had become the distinctive feature of English politics, though its powers were still undefined and its organization embryonic.
"Edward used these parilaments and other councils to enact measures of consolidation and reform in legal, procedural, and administrative matters of many kinds. The great statutes promulgated between 1275 and 1290 are the glory of his reign. Conservative and definitory rather than original, they owed much to Burnell, Edward's chancellor. With the wast developments and reorganization of the administrative machine that Burnell coordinated, they created a new era in English government. The quo warranto inquiry, begun in 1275, the statutes of Gloucester (1278) and of Quo Warranto (1290) sought with much success to bring existing franchises under control and to prevent the unauthorized assumption of new ones. Tenants were required to show
by what warrant' or right they held their franchises. Edward strove, unsuccessfully, to restore the feudal army and strengthen local government institutions by compelling minor landowners to assume the duties of knighthood. His land legislation, especially the clause
de donis conditionalibus' in the miscellaneous Second Statute of Westminster (1285) and the stature Quia Emptores (Third Statute of Westminster, 1290), eventually helped to undermine feudalism, quite contrary to his prupose. By the Staute of Mortmain (1279) the crown gained control of the acquisition of land by ecclesiastical bodies. The Statute of Winchester (1285) codified and strengthened the police system for preserving public order. The Statute of Acton Burnell (1283) and the Statute of Merchants (1285) showed practical concern for trade and merchants. These are but the most famous of many statutes aimed at efficiency and sound administration.
"Meanwhile, Edward destroyed the autonomous principality of Wales, which, under Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, had expanded to enclude all Welsh lordships and much territory recovered from the marcher lords. Domestic difficulties had compelled Henry III to recognize Llewelyn's gains by the Treaty of Shrewsbury (1267), but Edward was determined to reduce Llewelyn and used homage as a pretext for attack. He invaded Wales by three coordinated advances with naval support (1277), blockaded Llewelyn in Snowdonia, starved him into submission, and stripped him of all his conquests since 1247. He then erected a tremendous ring of powerful castles encircling Gwynedd and reorganized the conquered districts as shires and hundreds. When English rule provoked rebellion, he methodically reconquered the principality, killing both Llewelyn (1282) and his brother David (1283). By the Statute of Wales (1284) he completed the reorganization of the principality on English lines, leaving the Welsh marchers unaffected. A further Welsh rising in 1294-1295 was ruthlessly crushed, and Wales remained supine for more than 100 years.
"After 1294, matters deteriorated. Queen Eleanor had died in 1290, Burnell in 1292, and Edward never thereafter found such good advisers. The conquest and fortification of Wales had badly strained his finances; now endless wars with Scotland and France bankrupted him. He quarrelled bitterly with both clergy and barons, behaving as a rash and obstinate autocrat who refused to recognize his limitations. Philip III and Philip IV of France had both cheated him of the contingent benefits provised by the Treaty of Paris (1259). Bu constant intervention on pretext of suzerainty they had nibbled at his Gascon borders and undermined th authority of his administration there. After doing homage to Philip IV in 1286, Edward visited Gascony to reorganize the administration and restore authority. On returning to England in 1289 he had to dismiss many judges and officials for corruption and oppression during his absence. In 1290, having systematically stripped the Jews of their remaining wealth, he expelled them from England. French intervention in Gascony was now intensified; affrays between English and French sailors inglamed feelings; and in 1293 Philip IV tricked Edward's brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, who was conducting negotiations, into ordering a supposedly formal and temporary surrender of the duchy, shich Philip then refused to restore. The Welsh rising and Scottish troubles prevented Edward from taking action, and when at last, in 1297, he sailed to attack France from Flanders, his barons refused to invade Gascony, and Wallace's rising forced him to return. He made peace with Philip (1299), and by Boniface VIII's persuasion, married Philip's sister Margaret, and eventually recovered an attenuated Gascon duchy.
"For more than 100 years relations between England and Scotland had been amicable, and the border had been remarkably peaceful. Edward inaugurated 250 years of bitter hatred, savage warfare, and bloody border forays. The deaths of Alexander III of Scotland (1286) and his granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway (1290), whom Edward planned to marry to his heir, Edward of Caernarvon (afterward Edward II), ended the line of succession. Many dubious claimants arose, and the Scottish magnates requested Edward's arbitration. Edward compelled the nobles and the claimants to recognize his suzerainty, and only then adjudged John de Balliol king (1292). Balliol did homage and was crowned, but Edward's insistence on effective jurisdiction, as suzerain, in Scottish cases eventually provoded the Scottish nobles to force Falliol to repudiate Edward's claims and to ally with France (1295). Edward invaded and conquered Scotland (1296), removing to Westminster the coronation stone of Scone. William Wallace led a revolt in 1297, and Edward, though brilliantly victorious at Falkirk (July 22, 1298), could not subdue the rebellion despite prolonged campaigning (1298-1303).
"The strain of these years provoked heavy collisions between Edward and his magnates. He had quarrelled violently with his archbishops of Canterbury, John Peckham (1279-1292) and Robert Winchelsey (1293-1313), over ecclesiastical liberties and jurisdiction. In 1297 Winchelsey, obeying Pope Boniface VIII's bull
Clericis Laicos' (1296), rejected Edward's demands for taxes from the clergy, whereupon Edward outlawed the clergy. His barons now defied his orders to invade Gascony and, when Edward went to Flanders, compelled the regents to confirm the charters of liberties, with important additions forbidding arbitrary taxation (1297), thereby forcing Edward to abandon the campaign and eventually to make peace with France. Although Pope Clement V, more pliant than Boniface, allowed Edward to exile Winchelsey and intimidate the clergy (1306), the barons had exacted further concessions (1301) before reconciliation. Edward renewed the conquest of Scotland in 1303, captured Stirling in 1304, and executed Wallace as a traitor in 1305; but when Scotland seemed finally subjected, Robert I the Bruce revived rebellion and was crowned in 1306. On his way to reconquer Scotland, Edward died at Burgh by Sands, near Carlisle, on July 7, 1307."
A History of the Plantagenets Vol II, The Magnificent Century, Thomas B Costain, 1951, Popular Library
p20: "Edward Born 1239, Died 1307, Became King of England Edward I 1272."
p152: "That she failed to produce an heir until after nearly four years of marriage added to Eleanor's unpopularity...There was excitement, therefore, and even a resurgence of her early popularity when it became known in the first months of 1239 that she was with child.
"On June 18 of that year a healthy male child was born at Westminster. It was quite late at night when the happy event occurred, but al London was awake and waiting. As soon as a loud clangor of bells conveyed the intelligence that the child was a boy, the city was illuminated and the streets filled with excited people. Already the descent of the royal infant had been traced back from Matilda, the Saxon wife of Henry I; to Margaret, her mother, who had been Queen of Scotland; to Edward the Exile, Edmund Ironsides, Ethelred, Edgar, Edward, Alfred. There it was to con, to talk over, the proof of descent from Alred the Great, Alred of glorious memory! For the first time in many years Henry had succeeded in making his people happy."
p169: "Edward the 1st child was militant in his devotion to his parents."
Edward I., Plantaganet, Longshanks, Earl of Chester, King of England
(1272-1307), the third son of Henry III and his wife Eleanor, was born at
Westminster on June 17, 1239 and during the reign of his father took
active part in political affairs. He was the Earl of Chester. He was
taken prisoner at Lewes in 1264 but escaping, he defeated the Earl of
Leicester. In 1272 he went on a Crusade as far as Acre, where his
daughter Joan was born, and although he inherited the crown that year, he
did not return to England until 1274, being crowned on August 19, 1274.
It is significant of the times that he was able to thus move in a
leisurely fashion across Europe without fear of disturbances at home.
He fully accepted those articles of The Great Charter (Magna Charta) of
King John which had been set aside at the beginning of his father's
reign, and which required that the king should levy scutages and aids
only with the consent of the Great Council or Parliament. The further
requirement of the barons that they should name the ministers of the
crown was allowed to fall into disuse. Edward was a capable ruler, and
knew how to appoint better ministers than the barons were likely to
choose for him. He was eminent not only as a ruler but as a legislator
and succeeded in enacting many wise laws, because he knew that useful
legislation is possible only when the legislator has an intelligent
perception of the remedies needed to meet existing evils, and is willing
to content himself with such remedies as those persons who are to be
benefited by them are ready to accept. The first condition was fulfilled
by Edward's own skill as a lawyer, and by the
skill of the great lawyers whom he employed. The second condition was
fulfilled by his determination to authorize no new legislation without
the counsel and acquiescence of those who were most affected by it. Not
until late in his reign did he call a whole parliament together as Earl
Simon de Montfort had done. Instead, he called the barons together in
any manner which affected the barons, and the representatives of the
townsmen together in any manner which affected the townsmen, and so with
other classes. In 1295 he summoned the "Model Parliament," so called
because it became the form for future Parliaments.
Every king of England since the Norman Conquest had exercised authority
in a twofold capacity: (1) as head of the nation and (2) as the feudal
lord of his vassals. Edward laid more stress than any former king upon
his national headship. Early in his reign he divided the Curis Regis
into three courts: (1) The Court of King's Bench, to deal with criminal
offenses reserved for the king's judgment and with suits in which he was
himself concerned; (2) The Court of Exchequer, to deal with all matters
touching the king's revenue; and (3) The Court of Common Pleas, to deal
with suits between subject and subject. Edward took care that these
Courts should administer justice, and dismissed judges and many other
officials for corruption. In 1285 he improved the Assize of Arms of King
Henry II., to assure national support for his government in time of
danger. His favorite motto "Keep Troth" indicates the value he placed
upon a man's oath.
Alexander III. was King of Scotland in the earlier part of Edward's
reign, and his ancestors had done homage to Edward's ancestors, but, in
1189, William the Lion had purchased from Richard I possessions which
Henry II. had acquired by the treaty of Falaise. The Lion's successors,
however, held lands in England, and had done homage for them to the
English kings. Edward would gladly have restored the old practice of
homage for Scotland itself, but to this Alexander had never consented.
Edward coveted the prospect of being lord of the entire island, as it
would not only strengthen his position, but would bring the two nations
into peaceful union. A prospect of effecting a union by peaceful means
offered itself to Edward in 1285, when Alexander III. was killed by a
fall from his horse, near Kinghorn. Alexander's only descendant was his
grand-daughter Margaret, the child of his daughter and King Eric of
Norway. In 1290 it was agreed that she should marry the Prince of Wales
but that the two kingdoms should remain absolutely independent of each
other. Unfortunately the Maid of Norway, as the child was called, died
on her way to Scotland and this plan for establishing friendly relations
between the two countries came to naught. If it has succeeded, three
centuries of warfare and misery might possibly have been avoided.
Edward I. married in 1254 (1) Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand
III, King of Castile and Leon, and his wife Jeanne of Dammartin, who was
the daughter of Simon Dammartin and his wife, Marie, Countess of
Ponthieu, and on her death in 1279 that country came by descent to
Eleanor. Jeanne of Dammartin died on November 20, 1290. Her body was
brought for burial from Lincoln to Westminster, and the bereaved husband
ordered the erection of a memorial cross at each place where the body
rested. The years that followed were filled with wars with France and
with difficulties in Scotland. Edward married September 8, 1299 (2)
Margaret of France, daughter of Philip III., King of France. King Edward
died, during the third invasion of Scotland, at Burgh-on-the-Sands near
Carlisle, July 8, 1307, and was buried at Westminster. Margaret, the
second wife of King Edward I., died February 14, 1317 and was buried at
Grey Friars, London.
It was King Edward I. who first conferred the title Prince of Wales, thus
designating the fourth son, Edward, who was the oldest to survive, and
who later became Edward II., King of England.
Edward I. was sixty-seven when he died. He lived a full life, and the
range of his activities presents the historian with considerable
problems. He played a major part in the political troubles of the later
years of his father's reign; went on crusade; governed England during a
period particularly formative for legal and parliamentary development;
conquered Wales, and came close, or so it seemed in 1304, to subjecting
Scotland to his rule.
He was not a purely English ruler. He held the Duchy of Gascony in
south-western France, and took a very considerable interest in its
affairs. As befitted a ruler of his stature, he played a major part in
European diplomacy and war.
("The Genealogy of Homer Beers James", V1, JANDA Consultants, © 1993
World Ancestral Chart No. 17779 James Carl Romans.
World Ancestral Chart No. 31759 Ancestors of Warren Cash 1760: This was the Edward who was King of England during the time of William Wallace and Robert the Bruce, the Battle of Falkirk, etc.
Ancestral File Ver 4.10 8WKN-4B Mar Eleanor BurgosSpain Aft 5 Aug 1254, TPHE Mar Margaret 9 Sep 1299, IGI Marriage T990362-114-0884799 Leonor Princess of CASTILE Spouse Edward I King of ENGLAND 5 Aug 1254 Burgos Spain.
INTERNATIONAL GENEALOGICAL INDEX
IGI Marriage T990362-118-0884799 Edward I King ENGLAND Spouse Marguerite Princess FRANCE 8 Sep 1299 Canterbury Cathedral Kent England.
Edward also married Queen Eleanor Castile ENGLAND, daughter of King Saint Ferdinand CASTILE & LEON, III and Countess Joanna Dammartin PONTHIEU, on 5 Aug 1254 in Monastery, Las Huelgas, Burgos, Spain. (Queen Eleanor Castile ENGLAND was born about 1244-1246 in Burgos, Burgos, Spain, died on 29 Nov 1290 in Harby, Lincolnshire, England and was buried on 16 Dec 1290 in Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England.)
Edward also married Princess Margaret FRANCE, daughter of King Philippe FRANCE, III and Queen Isabel Aragon FRANCE, on 8 Sep 1299 in Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. (Princess Margaret FRANCE was born in 1282, died about 1317-1318 and was buried in Church, Grey Friars, Newgate, London, Middlesex, England.)